The first duty in Islam concerning eating is ensuring that the food is both permissible (halal) and comes from a permissible source. You should also feel satisfied with what Allah has provided you and believe that these provisions are a blessing from Allah.
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) once told `Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him), "O Ali! There are twelve rules a Muslim must learn to adhere to before the table (of food), four of which are duties, four of which are Sunnah, and four of which are manners. Knowing what you eat and its source, mentioning Allah’s name prior to eating, being grateful for provisions, and being content with them are duties. Sitting on the left foot, eating with three fingers, eating from the food closer to you, and licking the fingers (used while eating) are Sunnah. Restricting the size of each mouthful of food, chewing very well, refraining from looking people in the face, and washing the hands (afterwards) are of manners."
1. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w) expressed dislike for over-eating and said that over-eating is ill luck and misfortune. In other words, a person who over eats will be followed by such faults and defects that he will have difficulty and hardship in every place and people will look at him in a bad way.
2. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w) used to eat with three fingers, and before wiping and cleaning his hand he used to lick his blessed fingers.
3. Whenever food is very hot, it should be left covered for a while, so that the emission of steam finishes. In doing so, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) had said that this is a method in which barakah may be gained.
4. Hazrat Anas has mentioned that, “I once saw the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) sitting in a squatting posture and eating dates.”
5. The posture mentioned means that when one keeps his calves straight and sits on his feet.
6. Once in a gathering, the number of people eating increased, so the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) sat with his blessed legs folded (as in Attahiyyat position in Salaah), the reason being that there is humility in sitting like this and there is consideration for other people who are also present because sitting in this manner creates more room for them.
7. The people eating should not get up before the table cloth has been lifted.
8. When one is eating with another person then he should not stop eating as long as the other person is eating, even though the stomach has become full, this is so that the other person does not feel ashamed. If one has to stop eating, then he should make an excuse.
9. One should not drink from a water container by putting his mouth on it.
10. The same prohibition has been applied to placing the mouth on and drinking from a spouted jug, or a goblet meaning a long necked flask or a bottle etc.
11. One should not breathe into a utensil or blow into it. One should also refrain from placing his mouth on a utensil that is cracked or broken. Many people have the habit of standing up and drinking, one should also refrain from this act.
12. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w) never found fault with food, if he liked it then he would eat it. If he did not prefer it, then he would just leave it without complaining.
13. Hazrat Huzaifa has mentioned that the Holy Prophet prevented us from eating and drinking in gold and silver utensils. This order is for both men and women.
Sunnahs of our beloved prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him)
Sunnahs of Eating:
1. Sit and eat on the floor.
2. Spread out a cloth on the floor first before eating.
3. Wash both hands up to the wrists.
4. Recite "Bismillah wa'la barakatillah' aloud.
5. Eat with the right hand.
6. Eat from the side that is in front of you.
7. If a morsel of food falls down, pick it up, clean it and eat it.
8. Do not find fault with the food.
9. When eating, sit with either both knees on the ground or one knee raised or both knees raised.
10. Clean the plate and other utensils thoroughly after eating.
By doing this, the utensils make dua for one's forgiveness.
11. Recite dua after eating. ( Al hamdu lillahi lazi atamana saqana wo jaalna minal musalamin )
12. After meals wash both the hands.
13. Eat with three fingers if possible.
14. One should not eat very hot food.
15. Do not blow on the food.
16. After eating one should lick his fingers.
Sunnahs of drinking:
1. A Muslim should drink with the right hand. Shaytaan Drinks with the left hand.
2. Sit and drink.
3. Recite "Bismillah" before drinking.
4. After drinking say " Alhamdullilah" .
5. Drink in 3 breaths removing the utensil from the mouth after each sip.
6. Do not drink directly from the jug or bottle. One should pour the contents into a glass first and then drink.